存档在 ‘【技术】’ 分类

怎样通过EPP连接VeriSign

2018年8月21日

原文:http://www.cnblogs.com/hotion/p/5122826.html

通过ICANN认证并向(这里以VeriSign为例)申请注册接口后,VeriSign会提供一些测试环境的账号和资料。

只有在测试环境中把诸如域名查询/域名生成/域名续期/域名转移等功能实现,最后能过VeriSign测试验收后才会进入正式账号的下发流程。

在告知测试通过后,VeriSign的合同部将联系告知汇款细节,用于首笔预付款。

VerSign的在线客服一般是周1-5在线,中文客服部在澳大利亚的墨尔本,上午10点后才在线。

VerSign的客服在申请修改敏感信息,如IP白名单修改,等操作时要通过电话(只能是在ICANN上登记的电话)进行安全短语确认后才能进行。

工具:http://www.verisign.com/zh_CN/channel-resources/domain-registry-products/epp-sdks/index.xhtml#chat

调试:https://epptool-ctld.verisign-grs.com/epptool/

协议:http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5730

Verisign只提供JAVA的DEMO。另外需要:一台带独立IP的服务器,一个Verisign支持的证书。

怎样选择迈阿密VPS

2018年8月18日

地理位置远网络不一定快,但地理位置近网络相对快。

迈阿密位于佛罗里达的最南端,辐射加勒比海地区。

【迈阿密】

VPSServer.com

官网:https://www.vpsserver.com/miami/
方案:https://www.vpsserver.com/plans/
策略:7天退款,随用随买
机房:Miami datacenter address 36 NE 2nd Street Ste 400, Florida, USA
机房:This datacenter is located downtown Miami and is connected to major Internet carriers. Florida datacenters are a risk in the hurricane season. The Miami datacenter is designed to withstand hurricanes to Category 5 and is located outside the flood-plain. Equipped with N+1 redundancy, there is an uninterrupted power source.

IOZoom.com

官网:https://www.iozoom.com/datacenter/miami-vps/
机房:IO Zoom’s Miami VPS is located in downtown Miami inside the Digital Realty datacenter and is the gateway for reaching South America and Latin America. The facility will withstand anything mother nature throws at it including category 5 hurricanes. The network consists of GTT, Cogent, Telefonica and direct peering with FL-IX.

BudgetVM.com

官网:https://www.budgetvm.com/miami-datacenter.php
机房:BudgetVM Miami data center is located downtown Miami. This enterprise facility is SSAE16 Type II certified and has direct connectivity to Nap of the Americas. Our managed network is DDOS protected with direct connectivity to Nlayer, Cogent and Zayo. Our proximity provides unparalleled connectivity to United States Data Centers, Caribbean, South America and Internet Service Providers.

SecuredSpeed.com

官网:http://securedspeed.com/
优惠:Enter promo code “IMTHENEWGUYHERE” on our second checkout page to take 15% OFF your invoice.
优势:our Miami facility offers supperior connectivity to South America and Europe

VPS.net

官网:https://www.vps.net/cloud-datacenter-locations/usa-datacenters/

AWS.Amazon.com

官网:https://aws.amazon.com/
优惠:免费试用1年

怎样连接EPP服务器

2018年8月17日

【证书】

关于epp连接时的SSL证书,他提到是的:用于EPP连接的证书的commonname必须同在注册局登记的一致才可以,也就是证书的域名。比如COM的注册局要求这些。这个证书既可以用来做网站站点证书,也用来和注册局连接。有些注册局会要求申请时提交指定域名,在注册局登记的域名和证书域名要一致。这个域名是可以找注册局改的。目前afilias没有要我提交域名。

这样就好理解了。之前epp连接成功的证书,对应的域名并未在afilias那边备案。仅仅是证书类型列于afilias列出的满足要求的SSL证书列表当中。

参考:https://www.info.info/registrars/registrar-toolkit

【代码】

参考:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13696779/connecting-to-epp-server-from-local-system
参考:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/8973880/connect-to-epp-server-with-php-using-ssl

<?php
$epp_server = 'ote-console.centralnic.com'; $port = 700; $verify_peer = 0;
//$epp_server = 'epp.ispapi.net'; $port = 1700; $verify_peer = 0;
//$epp_server = 'epp.test.norid.no'; $port = 700; $verify_peer = 0;
//$epp_server = 'epp-test.rotld.ro'; $port = 5555; $verify_peer = 0; // SSLv3
$opts = array(
    'ssl' => array(
    'verify_peer' => $verify_peer,
    'cafile' => "/CAfiles/gd_bundle.crt",
    'local_cert' => "/certs/certificate.cer",
    'passphrase' => 'YourCertificatePasswordHere'
    )
);

$context = stream_context_create($opts);

// TLSv1

$fp = stream_socket_client( "tls://$epp_server:$port", $errno, $errstr, 1, STREAM_CLIENT_CONNECT, $context);

// SSLv3
//$fp = stream_socket_client( "sslv3://$epp_server:$port", $errno, $errstr, 1, STREAM_CLIENT_CONNECT, $context);

if (!$fp) {
    echo "$errstr ($errno)<br />\n";
}

else {
    fwrite($fp, "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.example.com\r\nAccept: */*\r\n\r\n");
    while (!feof($fp)) {
        echo fgets($fp, 1024);
    }

    fclose($fp);

}

?>

【测试:epp-ote.centralnic.com:700】

输入:

openssl s_client -connect epp-ote.centralnic.com:700

输出:

CONNECTED(00000003)
depth=3 C = SE, O = AddTrust AB, OU = AddTrust External TTP Network, CN = AddTrust External CA Root
verify return:1
depth=2 C = GB, ST = Greater Manchester, L = Salford, O = COMODO CA Limited, CN = COMODO RSA Certification Authority
verify return:1
depth=1 C = GB, ST = Greater Manchester, L = Salford, O = COMODO CA Limited, CN = COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
verify return:1
depth=0 OU = Domain Control Validated, OU = COMODO SSL, CN = epp-ote.centralnic.com
verify return:1
---
Certificate chain
 0 s:/OU=Domain Control Validated/OU=COMODO SSL/CN=epp-ote.centralnic.com
   i:/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
 1 s:/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
   i:/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA Certification Authority
 2 s:/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA Certification Authority
   i:/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust External TTP Network/CN=AddTrust External CA Root
 3 s:/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust External TTP Network/CN=AddTrust External CA Root
   i:/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust External TTP Network/CN=AddTrust External CA Root
---
Server certificate
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
subject=/OU=Domain Control Validated/OU=COMODO SSL/CN=epp-ote.centralnic.com
issuer=/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
---
Acceptable client certificate CA names
/C=CN/O=CNNIC/CN=CNNIC ROOT
/C=FR/O=Dhimyotis/CN=Certigna
/O=TeliaSonera/CN=TeliaSonera Root CA v1
/C=ES/O=IZENPE S.A./CN=Izenpe.com
/C=FI/O=Sonera/CN=Sonera Class2 CA
/O=RSA Security Inc/OU=RSA Security 2048 V3
/C=RO/O=certSIGN/OU=certSIGN ROOT CA
/O=Cybertrust, Inc/CN=Cybertrust Global Root
/CN=ComSign Secured CA/O=ComSign/C=IL
/CN=Atos TrustedRoot 2011/O=Atos/C=DE
/C=FR/O=Certplus/CN=Class 2 Primary CA
/C=PL/O=Unizeto Sp. z o.o./CN=Certum CA
/C=TW/O=Government Root Certification Authority
/O=Digital Signature Trust Co./CN=DST Root CA X3
/C=US/O=AffirmTrust/CN=AffirmTrust Premium
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Global CA
/CN=ACCVRAIZ1/OU=PKIACCV/O=ACCV/C=ES
/C=DK/O=TDC Internet/OU=TDC Internet Root CA
/C=JP/O=Japanese Government/OU=ApplicationCA
/C=US/O=AffirmTrust/CN=AffirmTrust Commercial
/C=US/O=AffirmTrust/CN=AffirmTrust Networking
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Global CA 2
/CN=ACEDICOM Root/OU=PKI/O=EDICOM/C=ES
/C=BM/O=QuoVadis Limited/CN=QuoVadis Root CA 2
/C=BM/O=QuoVadis Limited/CN=QuoVadis Root CA 3
/C=CH/O=SwissSign AG/CN=SwissSign Gold CA - G2
/C=GB/O=Trustis Limited/OU=Trustis FPS Root CA
/C=US/O=AffirmTrust/CN=AffirmTrust Premium ECC
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Universal CA
/C=CH/O=SwissSign AG/CN=SwissSign Silver CA - G2
/C=HK/O=Hongkong Post/CN=Hongkong Post Root CA 1
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Universal CA 2
/C=US/O=SecureTrust Corporation/CN=SecureTrust CA
/C=SK/L=Bratislava/O=Disig a.s./CN=CA Disig
/C=US/O=SecureTrust Corporation/CN=Secure Global CA
/C=NO/O=Buypass AS-983163327/CN=Buypass Class 2 CA 1
/C=NO/O=Buypass AS-983163327/CN=Buypass Class 3 CA 1
/OU=GlobalSign Root CA - R2/O=GlobalSign/CN=GlobalSign
/OU=GlobalSign Root CA - R3/O=GlobalSign/CN=GlobalSign
/C=DE/O=D-Trust GmbH/CN=D-TRUST Root Class 3 CA 2 2009
/C=NO/O=Buypass AS-983163327/CN=Buypass Class 2 Root CA
/C=NO/O=Buypass AS-983163327/CN=Buypass Class 3 Root CA
/C=US/O=Equifax/OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority
/C=DE/O=D-Trust GmbH/CN=D-TRUST Root Class 3 CA 2 EV 2009
/C=JP/O=SECOM Trust.net/OU=Security Communication RootCA1
/C=ES/CN=Autoridad de Certificacion Firmaprofesional CIF A62634068
/C=TW/O=TAIWAN-CA/OU=Root CA/CN=TWCA Global Root CA
/C=SK/L=Bratislava/O=Disig a.s./CN=CA Disig Root R1
/C=SK/L=Bratislava/O=Disig a.s./CN=CA Disig Root R2
/C=IL/O=StartCom Ltd./CN=StartCom Certification Authority G2
/C=US/O=Equifax Secure Inc./CN=Equifax Secure eBusiness CA-1
/C=NL/O=Staat der Nederlanden/CN=Staat der Nederlanden Root CA
/C=BE/O=GlobalSign nv-sa/OU=Root CA/CN=GlobalSign Root CA
/C=JP/O=Japan Certification Services, Inc./CN=SecureSign RootCA11
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./CN=GeoTrust Primary Certification Authority
/C=IE/O=Baltimore/OU=CyberTrust/CN=Baltimore CyberTrust Root
/C=NL/O=Staat der Nederlanden/CN=Staat der Nederlanden Root CA - G2
/C=US/O=Equifax Secure Inc./CN=Equifax Secure Global eBusiness CA-1
/C=US/O=Digital Signature Trust/OU=DST ACES/CN=DST ACES CA X6
/C=JP/O=SECOM Trust Systems CO.,LTD./OU=Security Communication RootCA2
/emailAddress=pki@sk.ee/C=EE/O=AS Sertifitseerimiskeskus/CN=Juur-SK
/C=TW/O=Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd./OU=ePKI Root Certification Authority
/C=TW/O=TAIWAN-CA/OU=Root CA/CN=TWCA Root Certification Authority
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
/C=JP/O=SECOM Trust Systems CO.,LTD./OU=Security Communication EV RootCA1
/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert Global Root CA
/C=US/O=Network Solutions L.L.C./CN=Network Solutions Certificate Authority
/C=FR/O=Certinomis/OU=0002 433998903/CN=Certinomis - Autorit\xC3\xA9 Racine
/C=US/O=America Online Inc./CN=America Online Root Certification Authority 1
/C=US/O=America Online Inc./CN=America Online Root Certification Authority 2
/C=US/O=The Go Daddy Group, Inc./OU=Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority
/C=ch/O=Swisscom/OU=Digital Certificate Services/CN=Swisscom Root CA 1
/C=ch/O=Swisscom/OU=Digital Certificate Services/CN=Swisscom Root CA 2
/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust TTP Network/CN=AddTrust Public CA Root
/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust TTP Network/CN=AddTrust Class 1 CA Root
/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert Assured ID Root CA
/C=ch/O=Swisscom/OU=Digital Certificate Services/CN=Swisscom Root EV CA 2
/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust TTP Network/CN=AddTrust Qualified CA Root
/C=ES/O=Generalitat Valenciana/OU=PKIGVA/CN=Root CA Generalitat Valenciana
/C=US/O=Starfield Technologies, Inc./OU=Starfield Class 2 Certification Authority
/C=IT/L=Milan/O=Actalis S.p.A./03358520967/CN=Actalis Authentication Root CA
/C=US/O=VISA/OU=Visa International Service Association/CN=Visa eCommerce Root
/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
/C=SE/O=AddTrust AB/OU=AddTrust External TTP Network/CN=AddTrust External CA Root
/C=DE/O=Deutsche Telekom AG/OU=T-TeleSec Trust Center/CN=Deutsche Telekom Root CA 2
/C=HU/L=Budapest/O=Microsec Ltd./OU=e-Szigno CA/CN=Microsec e-Szigno Root CA
/C=EE/O=AS Sertifitseerimiskeskus/CN=EE Certification Centre Root CA/emailAddress=pki@sk.ee
/C=TR/O=Elektronik Bilgi Guvenligi A.S./CN=e-Guven Kok Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Saglayicisi
/C=US/O=GTE Corporation/OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc./CN=GTE CyberTrust Global Root
/C=DE/O=TC TrustCenter GmbH/OU=TC TrustCenter Class 2 CA/CN=TC TrustCenter Class 2 CA II
/C=DE/O=TC TrustCenter GmbH/OU=TC TrustCenter Class 3 CA/CN=TC TrustCenter Class 3 CA II
/C=DE/O=TC TrustCenter GmbH/OU=TC TrustCenter Universal CA/CN=TC TrustCenter Universal CA I
/C=CO/O=Sociedad Cameral de Certificaci\xC3\xB3n Digital - Certic\xC3\xA1mara S.A./CN=AC Ra\xC3\xADz Certic\xC3\xA1mara S.A.
/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=Comodo CA Limited/CN=AAA Certificate Services
/C=EU/O=AC Camerfirma SA CIF A82743287/OU=http://www.chambersign.org/CN=Global Chambersign Root
/C=IL/O=StartCom Ltd./OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing/CN=StartCom Certification Authority
/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=Comodo CA Limited/CN=Secure Certificate Services
/C=PL/O=Unizeto Technologies S.A./OU=Certum Certification Authority/CN=Certum Trusted Network CA
/C=BM/O=QuoVadis Limited/OU=Root Certification Authority/CN=QuoVadis Root Certification Authority
/C=EU/O=AC Camerfirma SA CIF A82743287/OU=http://www.chambersign.org/CN=Chambers of Commerce Root
/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=Comodo CA Limited/CN=Trusted Certificate Services
/CN=EBG Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1/O=EBG Bili\xC5\x9Fim Teknolojileri ve Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E./C=TR
/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO Certification Authority
/C=DE/O=T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH/OU=T-Systems Trust Center/CN=T-TeleSec GlobalRoot Class 2
/C=DE/O=T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH/OU=T-Systems Trust Center/CN=T-TeleSec GlobalRoot Class 3
/C=HU/L=Budapest/O=Microsec Ltd./CN=Microsec e-Szigno Root CA 2009/emailAddress=info@e-szigno.hu
/C=US/OU=www.xrampsecurity.com/O=XRamp Security Services Inc/CN=XRamp Global Certification Authority
/C=US/ST=Arizona/L=Scottsdale/O=GoDaddy.com, Inc./CN=Go Daddy Root Certificate Authority - G2
/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=(c) 2007 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA - G2
/C=FR/ST=France/L=Paris/O=PM/SGDN/OU=DCSSI/CN=IGC/A/emailAddress=igca@sgdn.pm.gouv.fr
/C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO ECC Certification Authority
/C=US/O=Wells Fargo WellsSecure/OU=Wells Fargo Bank NA/CN=WellsSecure Public Root Certificate Authority
/C=CH/O=WISeKey/OU=Copyright (c) 2005/OU=OISTE Foundation Endorsed/CN=OISTE WISeKey Global Root GA CA
/C=CN/O=China Internet Network Information Center/CN=China Internet Network Information Center EV Certificates Root
/C=AT/O=A-Trust Ges. f. Sicherheitssysteme im elektr. Datenverkehr GmbH/OU=A-Trust-nQual-03/CN=A-Trust-nQual-03
/C=US/ST=Arizona/L=Scottsdale/O=Starfield Technologies, Inc./CN=Starfield Root Certificate Authority - G2
/C=US/ST=UT/L=Salt Lake City/O=The USERTRUST Network/OU=http://www.usertrust.com/CN=UTN - DATACorp SGC
/C=GR/O=Hellenic Academic and Research Institutions Cert. Authority/CN=Hellenic Academic and Research Institutions RootCA 2011
/C=US/ST=UT/L=Salt Lake City/O=The USERTRUST Network/OU=http://www.usertrust.com/CN=UTN-USERFirst-Hardware
/C=US/ST=Arizona/L=Scottsdale/O=Starfield Technologies, Inc./CN=Starfield Services Root Certificate Authority - G2
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./OU=(c) 2007 GeoTrust Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=GeoTrust Primary Certification Authority - G2
/C=US/O=GeoTrust Inc./OU=(c) 2008 GeoTrust Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=GeoTrust Primary Certification Authority - G3
/C=HU/L=Budapest/O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft./OU=Tanusitvanykiadok/CN=NetLock Uzleti (Class B) Tanusitvanykiado
/C=HU/L=Budapest/O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft./OU=Tanusitvanykiadok/CN=NetLock Expressz (Class C) Tanusitvanykiado
/C=HU/L=Budapest/O=NetLock Kft./OU=Tan\xC3\xBAs\xC3\xADtv\xC3\xA1nykiad\xC3\xB3k (Certification Services)/CN=NetLock Arany (Class Gold) F\xC5\x91tan\xC3\xBAs\xC3\xADtv\xC3\xA1ny
/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Certification Services Division/OU=(c) 2006 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA
/C=EU/L=Madrid (see current address at www.camerfirma.com/address)/serialNumber=A82743287/O=AC Camerfirma S.A./CN=Global Chambersign Root - 2008
/C=EU/L=Madrid (see current address at www.camerfirma.com/address)/serialNumber=A82743287/O=AC Camerfirma S.A./CN=Chambers of Commerce Root - 2008
/C=HU/ST=Hungary/L=Budapest/O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft./OU=Tanusitvanykiadok/CN=NetLock Kozjegyzoi (Class A) Tanusitvanykiado
/C=US/O=Entrust, Inc./OU=www.entrust.net/CPS is incorporated by reference/OU=(c) 2006 Entrust, Inc./CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority
/C=TR/L=Ankara/O=E-Tu\xC4\x9Fra EBG Bili\xC5\x9Fim Teknolojileri ve Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E./OU=E-Tugra Sertifikasyon Merkezi/CN=E-Tugra Certification Authority
/O=Entrust.net/OU=www.entrust.net/CPS_2048 incorp. by ref. (limits liab.)/OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited/CN=Entrust.net Certification Authority (2048)
/CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1/C=TR/L=ANKARA/O=(c) 2005 T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E.
/L=ValiCert Validation Network/O=ValiCert, Inc./OU=ValiCert Class 1 Policy Validation Authority/CN=http://www.valicert.com//emailAddress=info@valicert.com
/L=ValiCert Validation Network/O=ValiCert, Inc./OU=ValiCert Class 2 Policy Validation Authority/CN=http://www.valicert.com//emailAddress=info@valicert.com
/L=ValiCert Validation Network/O=ValiCert, Inc./OU=ValiCert Class 3 Policy Validation Authority/CN=http://www.valicert.com//emailAddress=info@valicert.com
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=VeriSign Trust Network/OU=(c) 2008 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=VeriSign Universal Root Certification Authority
/CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1/C=TR/L=Ankara/O=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E. (c) Kas\xC4\xB1m 2005
/CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1/C=TR/L=Ankara/O=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E. (c) Aral\xC4\xB1k 2007
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2/OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/OU=VeriSign Trust Network
/C=US/O=Entrust.net/OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.)/OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited/CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification Authority
/C=ZA/ST=Western Cape/L=Cape Town/O=Thawte Consulting cc/OU=Certification Services Division/CN=Thawte Server CA/emailAddress=server-certs@thawte.com
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=VeriSign Trust Network/OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G3
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=VeriSign Trust Network/OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=VeriSign Class 4 Public Primary Certification Authority - G3
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=VeriSign Trust Network/OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G5
/C=US/O=VeriSign, Inc./OU=VeriSign Trust Network/OU=(c) 2007 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G4
/C=ZA/ST=Western Cape/L=Cape Town/O=Thawte Consulting cc/OU=Certification Services Division/CN=Thawte Premium Server CA/emailAddress=premium-server@thawte.com
/emailAddress=contacto@procert.net.ve/L=Chacao/ST=Miranda/OU=Proveedor de Certificados PROCERT/O=Sistema Nacional de Certificacion Electronica/C=VE/CN=PSCProcert
/C=ES/O=Agencia Catalana de Certificacio (NIF Q-0801176-I)/OU=Serveis Publics de Certificacio/OU=Vegeu https://www.catcert.net/verarrel (c)03/OU=Jerarquia Entitats de Certificacio Catalanes/CN=EC-ACC
/C=TR/L=Gebze - Kocaeli/O=T\xC3\xBCrkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Ara\xC5\x9Ft\xC4\xB1rma Kurumu - T\xC3\x9CB\xC4\xB0TAK/OU=Ulusal Elektronik ve Kriptoloji Ara\xC5\x9Ft\xC4\xB1rma Enstit\xC3\xBCs\xC3\xBC - UEKAE/OU=Kamu Sertifikasyon Merkezi/CN=T\xC3\x9CB\xC4\xB0TAK UEKAE K\xC3\xB6k Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1 - S\xC3\xBCr\xC3\xBCm 3
/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Certification Services Division/OU=(c) 2008 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA - G3
Client Certificate Types: RSA sign, DSA sign, ECDSA sign
Requested Signature Algorithms: RSA+SHA512:DSA+SHA512:ECDSA+SHA512:RSA+SHA384:DSA+SHA384:ECDSA+SHA384:RSA+SHA256:DSA+SHA256:ECDSA+SHA256:RSA+SHA224:DSA+SHA224:ECDSA+SHA224:RSA+SHA1:DSA+SHA1:ECDSA+SHA1
Shared Requested Signature Algorithms: RSA+SHA512:DSA+SHA512:ECDSA+SHA512:RSA+SHA384:DSA+SHA384:ECDSA+SHA384:RSA+SHA256:DSA+SHA256:ECDSA+SHA256:RSA+SHA224:DSA+SHA224:ECDSA+SHA224:RSA+SHA1:DSA+SHA1:ECDSA+SHA1
Peer signing digest: SHA512
Server Temp Key: ECDH, P-256, 256 bits
---
SSL handshake has read 24065 bytes and written 427 bytes
---
New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
Server public key is 2048 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
No ALPN negotiated
SSL-Session:
    Protocol  : TLSv1.2
    Cipher    : ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
    Session-ID: 62529831470B8FD40179DDC647ACC9FF425F3A07CF1CC3A918857C8635DB2E6A
    Session-ID-ctx:
    Master-Key: CBFBE5E9CD32528E2C8DBCBC541643AA0336B4AEB3C2EF00FFB09A79D13AADFD7DEBD8C944B6690ABCB68E721AEAF418
    Key-Arg   : None
    Krb5 Principal: None
    PSK identity: None
    PSK identity hint: None
    TLS session ticket lifetime hint: 300 (seconds)
    TLS session ticket:
    0000 - 3e c8 4b cd 0a 0c 93 d3-b3 8b 3e 74 24 89 76 a1   >.K.......>t$.v.
    0010 - 25 b3 71 a5 bd 29 7c 5f-2b da 66 c2 2a 7c cd 15   %.q..)|_+.f.*|..
    0020 - be 74 aa f0 ab 23 b6 2f-29 4f b5 18 e4 41 63 e5   .t...#./)O...Ac.
    0030 - 4d fe 66 1a fc 31 01 31-e0 93 b8 d3 dd 37 ca 54   M.f..1.1.....7.T
    0040 - d7 81 e0 9a 90 18 be e3-bb 51 be a9 79 4e c9 29   .........Q..yN.)
    0050 - 1a 06 12 18 62 f1 81 97-3b 67 e5 18 48 ef 8e d0   ....b...;g..H...
    0060 - fb e3 66 cf c6 0a d3 e9-ee 74 5f 36 1a b3 f5 53   ..f......t_6...S
    0070 - a6 05 5c 24 af 1c 44 f9-83 1b 05 6e 8b ab 64 2a   ..\$..D....n..d*
    0080 - 64 61 f9 47 bc 72 92 31-08 76 49 eb a4 9f 3a 36   da.G.r.1.vI...:6
    0090 - f3 e8 2e 22 da 2c 44 4b-bf d5 e9 fb 3c c5 8c 7c   ...".,DK....<..|
    00a0 - 62 27 7b 6f fc 23 f5 48-c5 f7 04 03 20 5f 6c 44   b'{o.#.H.... _lD
    00b0 - e5 f4 ae 19 28 a6 b5 67-df 46 20 16 85 62 f4 1d   ....(..g.F ..b..

    Start Time: 1534496139
    Timeout   : 300 (sec)
    Verify return code: 0 (ok)
---
▒<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?><epp xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:epp-1.0"><greeting><svID>CentralNic EPP server EPP-OTE.CENTRALNIC.COM</svID><svDate>2018-08-17T08:55:39.0Z</svDate><svcMenu><version>1.0</version><lang>en</lang><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:domain-1.0</objURI><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:contact-1.0</objURI><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:host-1.0</objURI><svcExtension><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:rgp-1.0</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:secDNS-1.1</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:idn-1.0</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:fee-0.4</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:fee-0.5</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:launch-1.0</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:regtype-0.1</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:auxcontact-0.1</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:artRecord-0.1</extURI><extURI>http://www.nic.coop/contactCoopExt-1.0</extURI></svcExtension></svcMenu><dcp><access><all></all></access><statement><purpose><admin></admin><prov></prov></purpose><recipient><ours></ours><public></public></recipient><retention><stated></stated></retention></statement></dcp></greeting></epp>

【测试:epp.whois.ai:700】

输入:

openssl s_client -connect epp.whois.ai:700

输出:

CONNECTED(00000003)
depth=2 C = US, O = "thawte, Inc.", OU = Certification Services Division, OU = "(c) 2006 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only", CN = thawte Primary Root CA
verify return:1
depth=1 C = US, O = "thawte, Inc.", OU = Domain Validated SSL, CN = thawte DV SSL CA - G2
verify return:1
depth=0 CN = epp.whois.ai
verify return:1
---
Certificate chain
 0 s:/CN=epp.whois.ai
   i:/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Domain Validated SSL/CN=thawte DV SSL CA - G2
 1 s:/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Domain Validated SSL/CN=thawte DV SSL CA - G2
   i:/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Certification Services Division/OU=(c) 2006 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA
 2 s:/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Certification Services Division/OU=(c) 2006 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA
   i:/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Certification Services Division/OU=(c) 2006 thawte, Inc. - For authorized use only/CN=thawte Primary Root CA
---
Server certificate
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIGbDCCBVSgAwIBAgIQEnysMVX0lo0MVBZPV8k9sjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBj
MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzEVMBMGA1UEChMMdGhhd3RlLCBJbmMuMR0wGwYDVQQLExRE
b21haW4gVmFsaWRhdGVkIFNTTDEeMBwGA1UEAxMVdGhhd3RlIERWIFNTTCBDQSAt
IEcyMB4XDTE3MDMyNDAwMDAwMFoXDTIwMDMyMzIzNTk1OVowFzEVMBMGA1UEAwwM
ZXBwLndob2lzLmFpMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAme4P
rb6IbjTgPH/05aWMz43m/Xx+huRservQmOEQ7cz/hd1UTpZHvH7SvTMPSQTsANRE
JdlqObW8pI3qwa2e1dwZdmLTwkiWF8fq5X+o4K+hrXCe50e9bRdT6/I7kTwVVnjH
0fhBEJMvO890Y7QQ2nPIxP0gjvv4ybJ1rQwI8gf50l1AZ/o/Mrb0zsykdBwLmJZW
WVktVNI4II0mdpTwuydn9BobnAE/IsWyChJVO3HT+EMu+KpekCaqkKO5WL5GsTAn
Jko2GcHFB+TaNmQ8o0+7tIgXd/mvYkIPxlfMrbxLaheyQykkeE2nJkdSEVYC9nDv
X8dN/PCqcjV3vGOggwIDAQABo4IDZjCCA2IwFwYDVR0RBBAwDoIMZXBwLndob2lz
LmFpMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwKwYDVR0fBCQwIjAgoB6gHIYaaHR0cDovL3RuLnN5bWNi
LmNvbS90bi5jcmwwbgYDVR0gBGcwZTBjBgZngQwBAgEwWTAmBggrBgEFBQcCARYa
aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cudGhhd3RlLmNvbS9jcHMwLwYIKwYBBQUHAgIwIwwhaHR0cHM6
Ly93d3cudGhhd3RlLmNvbS9yZXBvc2l0b3J5MB8GA1UdIwQYMBaAFJ+4wals8vXA
IiqU7VyZrNTs18YHMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIFoDAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggrBgEFBQcD
AQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwVwYIKwYBBQUHAQEESzBJMB8GCCsGAQUFBzABhhNodHRwOi8v
dG4uc3ltY2QuY29tMCYGCCsGAQUFBzAChhpodHRwOi8vdG4uc3ltY2IuY29tL3Ru
LmNydDCCAfQGCisGAQQB1nkCBAIEggHkBIIB4AHeAHUA3esdK3oNT6Ygi4GtgWhw
fi6OnQHVXIiNPRHEzbbsvswAAAFbAFmghQAABAMARjBEAiBjU6XrUrBick0rFM3M
Ij1igfeXezeFqnSSMxbfwogg6wIgFmhhaaX/ieut8fZvPFgRH4JOkhysIgAkL470
oaR2+L4AdgCkuQmQtBhYFIe7E6LMZ3AKPDWYBPkb37jjd80OyA3cEAAAAVsAWaDC
AAAEAwBHMEUCID9a8ntBsgM5nCWkKT/Mz0d5aM65Bq5Le1nwkr4XABCNAiEAvzcP
qb/cuwrdivZW+23DdSzss7jbriA/PpUTbIVNk5cAdQDuS723dc5guuFCaR+r4Z5m
ow9+X7By2IMAxHuJeqj9ywAAAVsAWaJ/AAAEAwBGMEQCIQDsd/8sspv64QJs+/LD
v2GzvThCjPgWybe8EVy5vgAauQIfYWkXWAl5LyNibTTSl2nW/TZWD/xyHjODUgJ8
y9kPLQB2ALx44d/F9jxoRkkzTaEPoV8JeWkgCcCBtPP2kX8+2bilAAABWwBZoeUA
AAQDAEcwRQIgfs6+I16mxLPQP+a0IXncdxFwHNnWahmLlv5Z7wIzkL8CIQDV8TTT
r+Sm11Xv5jSNihRKeu+n+JMIskUhw9GvI5RhDDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAQEA
Qc2q2D6HurGj4isTwh1fRMQeqIEqRDv8jD6oS62+DF5wADif+nhalFmb2SR+xYJa
yM7/rlS307T6H/YlAgMTqP9Ew2VFX73K2A6Ie45ACAN3RS4pwmZ+4Pi6p7PrERnQ
ytYf1phZRbE8ly0ZXs1lMfJUleiIWfKPm5539DljNoMQDhp12lde+Zi75q5vjDFN
PwEPp6JcrguWSe9zF3HjcGgITmAUTgdE2U2THSknklJmGuTl3domFoIMZah3z3i9
Znp+fiLnyXDpzWtkLgPQdkj+XRDisO3t+WtCcsAu3PmYxPbmTpLiPeUCxfOPbUyy
eihlqt4RXwAlesfohy4L/g==
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
subject=/CN=epp.whois.ai
issuer=/C=US/O=thawte, Inc./OU=Domain Validated SSL/CN=thawte DV SSL CA - G2
---
No client certificate CA names sent
Peer signing digest: SHA512
Server Temp Key: ECDH, P-256, 256 bits
---
SSL handshake has read 4436 bytes and written 415 bytes
---
New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
Server public key is 2048 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
No ALPN negotiated
SSL-Session:
    Protocol  : TLSv1.2
    Cipher    : ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
    Session-ID: 5B768D2FCD122E8BF1ED307E0829534ADD053622C075E5DC099E9ED95A465AD3
    Session-ID-ctx:
    Master-Key: AE32C56BF15A2D98AB2E9EA69FDBC1BA8932C81DBF3F0A10E88B61E665DCB7610EC1231B42C66D76088AD83EC2669FDA
    Key-Arg   : None
    Krb5 Principal: None
    PSK identity: None
    PSK identity hint: None
    Start Time: 1534496047
    Timeout   : 300 (sec)
    Verify return code: 0 (ok)
---
▒<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><epp xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:epp-1.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:epp-1.0 epp-1.0.xsd"><greeting><svID>CoCCA EPP Server - epp.cocca.iors.cx</svID><svDate>2018-08-17T08:54:07.780Z</svDate><svcMenu><version>1.0</version><lang>en</lang><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:contact-1.0</objURI><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:domain-1.0</objURI><objURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:host-1.0</objURI><svcExtension><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:rgp-1.0</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:auxcontact-0.1</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:secDNS-1.1</extURI><extURI>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:fee-1.0</extURI><extURI>https://production.coccaregistry.net/cocca-activation-1.0</extURI></svcExtension></svcMenu><dcp><access><all/></access><statement><purpose><admin/><prov/></purpose><recipient><ours/><public/></recipient><retention><stated/></retention></statement></dcp></greeting></epp>

怎样使用Ubuntu

2018年8月13日

【介绍】

Ubuntu是一个以桌面应用为主的开源GNU/Linux操作系统。

Ubuntu基于Debian GNU/Linux,支持x86、amd64(即x64)和ppc架构,由全球化的专业开发团队(Canonical Ltd)打造的。

Ubuntu基于Debian发行版和GNOME桌面环境,而从11.04版起,Ubuntu发行版放弃了Gnome桌面环境,改为Unity。

【升级】

新创建好的VPS,Shell登录后显示:

Using username "root".
Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-127-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage

7 packages can be updated.
3 updates are security updates.

参考:https://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1222909

不奏效:

sudo apt-get update

不奏效:

sudo apt-get upgrade

奏效:

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

什么是WHOIS

2018年8月12日

系统:http://maven.outofmemory.cn/be.dnsbelgium/rdap-server/0.3.3/
源码:https://github.com/DNSBelgium/rdap

源码:https://github.com/openrdap/web

协议:https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/weirds/documents/
协议:https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7480

辞典:https://quizlet.com/194994604/icann-flash-cards/

官网:https://about.rdap.org/

问题:http://zgserver.com/rdapwhois.html

https://www.apnic.net/about-apnic/whois_search/about/rdap/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Registration_Data_Access_Protocol

WHOIS协议系统是用于查询域名是否被注册,以及注册相关的详细信息的系统。这个老旧的WHOIS协议将会被新的RDAP协议取代。

现有的WHOIS协议(RFC3912)是2004年由IETF制定发布,是用于查询互联网域名相关注册信息的重要基础性协议。

2012年5月,CNNIC联合ICANN、Verisign等国际机构,针对现有协议暴露出缺乏国际化支持机制、缺乏数据扩展机制、缺乏安全隐私保护机制等诸多问题而成立专项工作组,推动制订下一代WHOIS协议。

通过Internet信息查询协议WHOIS协议查询IP地址所在AS号


http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3730.html
下一代WHOIS协议即RDAP (Registration Data Access Protocol,注册数据访问协议)于2015年3月26日正式发布为IETF RFC国际技术标准(包括:RFC7480、RFC7481、RFC7482、RFC7483、RFC7484、RFC7485),该协议主要支持域名、IP地址、AS号、名字服务器以及实体的查询,其中域名、名字服务器和实体可以支持搜索功能。此外,还可支持IDN域名查询和搜索、查找WHOIS服务器的重定向、认证和数据访问权限三项具体功能。

互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN) 于今天宣布启动自愿参与的注册数据访问协议 (Registration Data Access Protocol, RDAP) 试点项目。该项目将于 2017 年 9 月 5 日启动,2018 年 7 月 31 日结束。注册数据访问协议 (RDAP) 使得用户能够访问当前的注册数据,该协议旨在替代 WHOIS 协议。

该试点项目旨在确立一个(或多个)基本面,用于指导实施、确立实施目标日期、编制一套 RDAP 解决方案的实施计划。启动一套试点项目将使得注册数据服务 (Registration Data Services, RDS) 运营商有机会获得操作经验,使得 RDS 数据的编制人和消费者都能参与并提供有价值的反馈意见。

这套自愿参与的 RDAP 试点项目是应 gTLD 注册管理机构利益相关方团体 (gTLD Registries Stakeholder Group) 的请求 [PDF, 93 Kb]而启动,并获得了注册服务机构利益相关方团体 (Registrar Stakeholder Group) 的大力支持。感兴趣的相关方能够在社群维基空间中参与这个试点项目。

注册数据访问协议 (RDAP) 简介

RDAP 与 WHOIS 协议相比具有以下优势:

标准化查询、响应和出错信息。
数据安全访问(例如:通过安全超文本传输协议 (HTTPS) 进行访问)。
延展性(例如:增添输出元素更为方便)。
提供自展机制,使得针对某个特定查询能够更方便地找到权威服务器。
重定向/参考机制(例如:从简略注册定向至注册服务机构)。
构建在大家熟知的网络协议超文本传输协议 (HTTP) 之上。
注册数据的国际化支持。
提供选项实现区别访问(例如:匿名用户可获得受限访问权;验证用户可获得完整访问权。)