阿蒙的礼物

2000年1月1日 | 分类: 【随笔】

阿蒙(Amon)神是古埃及史上最重要的神之一。他是新王国时期的国神。他还能和其他神组合,形成阿蒙-拉、敏-阿蒙等。阿蒙与穆特、洪苏一起成为底比斯的三神体。阿蒙在古埃及语里是“隐形”的意思。他最初是风神或空气神,通常呈人形,头戴带羽王冠,有时也以公羊或鹅的形像出现。从公元前2000年前到公元前1360年,他在诸神中一直占有显赫的地位,集创始神和保护神于一身。

1898年在埃及萨卡拉附近的一座坟墓中发现一个“带翼物”的东西,这个被称为“鸟状物”的珍品现在陈列在开罗“古埃及文物馆”里,编号为6347。

出土半个多世纪来,人们一直注意这件文物。直到1969年,卡利尔梅西亚参观文物馆时注意这件奇特的东西,并对它进行了研究。这文物是木制品,保护得很好,重29克,长14厘米,它的“鼻子”长32厘米,翼展宽18厘米,其形状显然是个飞行器。它的两翼平展,但尾部却是垂直的,同两翼相垂直。

梅西亚在观察这只奇异的鸟时,发现鸟身刻有一个符号,写著“Pa Diemen”,英语“Gift of Amon”,在古埃及意即“阿蒙的礼物”。而阿蒙是古埃及的“风神”。

莎草纸被古埃及人称为“pa-per-aa”,意为“法老的财富”,这也是英文中“纸(paper)”的词源。

阿蒙在古埃及语中意为“隐形”,“the hidden”。

Do-re-ah’形容因为我们信从福音而得到神的恩赐(《以弗所书》4:7我们各人蒙恩、都是照基督所量给各人的恩赐。)。Char’-is-ma形容神迹奇事(《哥林多前书》7:7 我愿意众人像我一样.只是各人领受 神的恩赐、一个是这样、一个是那样)。如果有人出于好心送我们礼物,这样的恩赐就是Do-re-ah’,如果我们看到一个天才,然后说这人真有恩赐,就是Char’-is-ma。http://www.douban.com/note/207023407/

梅西亚博士将这只奇异的鸟做风洞试验,它能飞翔,它的每个部位的比例十分理想。今天,大家公认第6347号文物实际上是飞机或滑翔机的缩比模型。但它没有着陆器。

创世之神 — 阿蒙神

万物创造者阿蒙神被描绘成头戴两片羽毛,手持一根权杖。他象征着男人的气概,公羊和雌鹅是他的神兽。他的崇拜中心位于底比斯 (Thebes) ,在中王国时期,他的重要性达到了顶峰。

Granite statue of Amon in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, 25th dynasty, 690–664 bce.

化身为公羊的阿蒙神佑护塔哈尔卡王( King Taharqa,25王朝,约在公元前690—664)

从字面上看,阿蒙的意思就是“无形之物”,虽然他被认为是万物创造者,但关于他的传说很少。

尽管缺少神话背景,但他的重要性却与日俱增。在中王国时期,底比斯(即现在的卢克索 (Luxor))形成了一个崇拜阿蒙神的中心,在这里他与太阳神瑞 (Re) 一起被崇拜,称为“阿蒙-瑞 (Amun-Re)”神。后来,他得到王族的青睐,到第十八王朝时他的地位超过了其他众神。在这期间,人们在卡纳克 (Karnak) 为他建造了一座宏伟的神殿,这座神殿直到今天仍然存在。

阿蒙是一位埃及主神的希腊化的名字,埃及文转写为ἰmn,意为”隐藏者”(也拼作”Amon”).他是八位Ogdoad之一.与姆特(Mut)结婚.

首先,他是底比斯(Thebes)的地方神祗.那时底比斯还是尼罗河东岸一个不起眼的小镇,而今天这周围的区域被卡尔纳克神庙(Karnak)占据着.第十一王朝起源于赫门泰特(Hermonthite)州(或者可能就在底比斯本地)的一个家族,他们将神庙用雕像装饰起来.阿蒙的名字被复合进了第十二王朝创建者的名字,Amenemhe中.这个名字又被他的三个继承人所继承.中王国时期的几位国王也采用了相同的名字;当底比斯的第十七王朝赶走了希克索人(Hyksos),阿蒙作为皇家城市的神祗被重新突出出来.

然而,直到第十八王朝的统治者们把他们胜利的军队从各个方向开往边境的时候,阿蒙才开始成为埃及普遍承认的神,排挤着埃及的其他神祗,甚至走出埃及成为宇宙之神.法老们把自己的一切胜利都归功于埃蒙,并在阿蒙的神庙上耗费着财富和劳力.

阿蒙被描绘为人形,头戴一个头箍,由头箍上笔直伸出两根平行羽饰.这可能象征着鹰的尾羽.埃蒙有两种常见的形象:一种是坐在王座中,另一种是站着,手持一根鞭子,很像Coptos和Chemmis(Akhmim)的神祗敏(Min).后者可能是他的原始形象,生育之神.国王在他面前隆重地耕耘将要播种的土地或收割成熟的谷物.他的配偶有时被称作埃莫奈特(Amaunet,Amun埃蒙的阴性词),但通常称作姆特(Mut);她长着人类的头,头戴上、下埃及的双冠(double crown).他们的儿子是孔斯(Chons).

太阳神拉(Ra)的名字有时会与阿蒙的名字结合起来,特别是在他作为”众神之王”的时候.在埃及,天堂的统治权属于太阳神,而埃蒙就是最高神,因此从逻辑上说,阿蒙就是拉.阿蒙被称作”王座与两陆之王”,或者更骄傲地称作”众神之王”.

《Airplane Evidence Found in Ancient Egyptian and South American Artifacts》

Airplane Evidence Found in Ancient Egyptian and South American Artifacts

The hustle and bustle of modern society is greatly accommodated by the numerous technological advances that are utilized by millions. The convenience of life now seems a far cry from the daily, primal struggle faced by others in earlier generations. Modern society would find it hard to imagine a life without conveniences such as cars, boats, and airplanes.

Nowadays society, for the most part, no longer has to rely on the strength of their own backs or the use of animals as modes of transport. In fact, modes of transportation such as aircrafts have been the fascination of many for longer than previously imagined. Even ancient civilizations were fascinated by thoughts of flight.

The most recent of these is the airplane, which was invented in 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, were the first to make flight a reality for the known world. However, recent evidence casts doubt on whether or not these two ambitious brothers were actually the true inventors of the flying machines. In fact, artifacts uncovered in archaeological investigations done in Egypt and the ancient Mayan ruins suggest that these societies,ancient as they may be, had conceived the notion long before the Wright Brothers’ existence.

Strikingly accurate metal sculptures in the likeness of aircrafts were found scattered among the area of coastal South America. When evaluated for age, they were estimated to have emerged from somewhere between 500-800 BCE. Because the models had been hewn of gold, an exact date was not possible. However, archaeological evidence surrounding the area served as support that the pieces could be dated at a minimum of 1,000 years in age. The models found bore striking resemblance in craftsmanship to modern airplanes used today.

During an Egyptian expedition in 1898, a team of researchers uncovered a remarkably perfect wooden model airplane in a tomb located in Sakkara. Because it was made of wooden material, it was possible to hone in on a more accurate date. The small plane they discovered that day was dated at having been created around 200 BCE.The piece was then exhibited in the museum at Cairo in a special display. Due to avian facial features depicted on the nose of the airplane, it was mistaken for a sculpture of a bird and was put on display in the gallery of birds.

It remained classified as such until 1969, when Dr. Khalil Messiha took particular interest in the artifact. What he noticed were several discrepancies in the design of the model in comparison to other pieces of Egyptian archaeology and art that were classified as birds. Most notably was the model’s intentional omission of avian legs, which were commonplace among other bird artifacts. Also, traditional Egyptian birds had painted feathers, but the model did not. Incredibly, hieroglyphs depicted on the sides of airplane translate to the inscription “Gift of Amon,” who was the ancient Egyptian’s god of the wind and the air.

No one knows if either of these instruments were small models of airplane technology far ahead of their times, or if they were simply the creation of incredible visionaries. If some concept of flight were not in the works, many wonder how then would a number of artifacts pointing to the airplane with startling accuracy turn up from different areas. How would cultures which had no geographical or societal connection to one another have conceived with such accuracy the same notions? The meaning of the evidence of airplane artifacts remain anyone’s guess.

By J.A. Johnson

Egypt: A Sailplane in Ancient Egypt

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/air.htm

Is it a Plane?

By Dr. Maged El-Baily

The mysteries of the ancient Egyptians are countless. The pyramids and how they were built prove that the ancient Egyptians were geniuses in architecture, engineering and art. The mystery of mummification proves that they were the first anatomists and that they had great knowledge about the human body for their time. Another mystery is the model sailplane or model bird in Egyptian museum.

Is it a Plane?

The story began when the model was discovered in 1898 in a tomb near Sakkara. The model was then categorized as that of a bird and placed in the Egyptian museum in its designated section, with all the other bird models. In 1969 Dr. Khalil Messiha noticed the difference between this model and the rest of the birds. The typical models of the ancient Egyptian birds have legs but this one did not. Other bird models had painted feathers but not this one. The model has a 7-inch wingspan and a vertical tail, not a horizontal one like typical ancient Egyptian bird models. Messiha’s brother, a flight engineer, reproduced it in balsa wood and launched it and it flew. Dr. Messiha was then sure it was a model of an airplane not a bird. The model was from the 3rd century BC, from an age of invention that followed the death of Alexander the Great. That so-called Hellenistic period gave us gears, screws, plumbing, control valves, Euclidean geometry, Archimedes, and Ptolemy’s astronomy. The hieroglyphs on the model airplane say “the Gift of Amon”. Amon in ancient Egypt was known to be the god of wind and air and this was another proof that the model was more than a model bird. In addition to the phrase on the assumed model, the phrase “I want to fly” was found in three papyrus scripts.

Is it a Plane? Is it a Plane?

There is no solid proof that the Egyptians were first to fly. However, many questions arise from this functioning model. Where the Egyptians the first pilots and did they build the first sailplane? If they did where is it?

1800 years later Leonardo da Vinci was still trying to invent flapping-wing airplanes and corkscrew-driven helicopters. But here, an Egyptian had produced something with all the features of a modern sailplane. If, in the future near or far, more artifacts are to be found proving that the Ancient Egyptians did build a plane and did fly, history will be corrected and the Wright Brothers would be the second to fly. So hold on to your seats Wright Brothers you might have a rough backspin!

《Planeur égyptien》

http://philippelopes.free.fr/PlaneurEgyptien.htm

La petite histoire
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Les références
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by Pepe ©

Accueil Arborescence Page précédente

La petite histoire Up Page
Origine, raisons, hasard
Le premier objet volant, “plus lourd que l’air” et mécanique, est attribué aux frères Wright en 1903, après que Clément Ader ait fait voler son avion en 1897 ! ( Déjà, la puissance des média américains ).
L’ingénieur allemand Lilienthal leur avait auparavant ouvert la voie en faisant voler ses planeurs ( il se tua au cours de son 2000e vol en 1896 ).
La première élévation humaine dans les airs est due aux frères Montgolfier, en ballon en 1782.
Avant cela, le vol est une impossibilité, un rêve ou une légende…

Comprendre simplement Up Page
Vulgarisation, de 7 à 77 ans
En 1898, on a trouvé dans une tombe à Saqqarah en Egypte, un objet ailé daté de 200 ans av. J.C..
Comme les avions n’existaient pas dans l’ancienne Egypte, il fut répertorié comme figurine d’ oiseau en bois et classé sous le n° 6347 dans le “rayon jouets” au sous-sol du musée du Caire.

Il demeura ignoré jusqu’en 1969, quand le Dr Khalil Messiha qui étudiait les maquettes des anciens égyptiens, fut intrigué par cet oiseau bizarre.

Aux formes aérodynamiques comparables à nos planeurs modernes.
Qui a une queue verticale et non horizontale. Avec comme inscription : “don d’Amon”, le dieu du vent.

L’objet en sycomore léger pèse 39 grammes, fait 14 centimètres de longueur pour 18 d’envergure.

Ses ailes sont en dièdre inverse, ce qui procure une grande stabilité en vol.

Il est parfaitement “centré” ; son centre de gravité se situe au tiers de la corde de l’aile. Il peut donc voler !!!

Comme l’ont démontré les répliques en balsa qui ont été faites, en y rajoutant une pièce fendue à l’endroit marqué sur la queue faisant office de gouverne de profondeur.

Il est maintenant étiqueté comme maquette d’avion, ainsi qu’une quinzaine d’autres artefacts ailés, et a fait l’objet d’une exposition spéciale dans le hall central du musée du Caire en 1972.

Ces photos ont été prises par Erich von Däniken.

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Je crois que, si les êtres humains que nous sommes ne parviennent pas toujours à évoluer comme ils le souhaiteraient _à s’épanouir professionnellement, sentimentalement et sexuellement (ce que j’appelle les trois pôles d’intérêts) c’est parce qu’il y a des barrages qui entravent leur désir d’accéder à un rêve inachevé. Je pars du principe que tout est possible, à condition de s’entourer de gens qui nous poussent à croire en nous.

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